Posts Tagged ‘miscellaneous’


Calendar – is an essential attribute of modern life, which can be easily found in any home or office. Source: Crawford Lake Capital. Since ancient times the calendar has helped people fix the date, time periods measured, organized, and organize their livelihoods. At the heart of any calendar lay periodic change of motion of celestial bodies. But in different periods of history different cultures differently interpreted the principles that should underlie the creation calendar, hence the huge number of calendars, as well as numerous disputes that last and at the moment. In Wikipedia you can find the following definition of the calendar. Calendarium – this is a book debt, calculated on a Sun carried a special day – Kalends, which literally translates as the beginning of the month. Ancient peoples used their methods of fixation of historical events, for example, the Romans were counting from the founding of Rome, and ancient Egyptian chronology began with the reign of each new dynasty. Translation from one system to another chronology complicated by the fact that these systems have unequal length, as well as a different date of beginning.

What calendars have existed in antiquity and which ones have the progenitors of the modern calendar? Let's look at some of them. 1. The ancient Greek calendar. Was the moon, and consisted of 354 days. The main drawback this calendar was that he occasionally clashed with the solar year at 11.25 days. For this reason, every eight years to the year had to add 90 days, divided into three equal months.

Muslim Calendars

The ancient Roman calendar. Originally the Roman calendar consisted of 304 days divided by 10 months and the start date of the new year was considered March 1. Later this calendar has undergone numerous reforms, in particular, added two additional months, and has changed the date of the new year with the first of March to the first of January. 3.

The Julian calendar was established by Julius Caesar, which attempted to link the calendar dates of seasonal phenomena of nature. Julius introduced duration of the year, equal to 365.25 days. According to the Julian calendar, every four years comes a leap year, which lasts 366 days sunshine. Focusing on the solar cycle has allowed to avoid paying the ‘insertions’ in calendar (except for leap year), as well as to bring the calendar dates to the natural cycle. 4.

Gregorian calendar. Creation of the Gregorian calendar was linked to the name of Pope Gregory XIII and is labeled as introduction of ‘new style’ instead of ‘old style’ (Julian calendar). The main objective of the reform was to return the actual date of the vernal equinox – March 21, established during the time of the Nicene Council, which approved Paschalia. The Gregorian calendar is as accurate as possible close to the tropical year, the difference is only 26 seconds. The Gregorian calendar was introduced in Russia in 1918. Virtually all existing calendars are based on cyclic motion of two celestial bodies – the sun and moon. In this regard, there are the following types of calendars. 1. Lunar calendar. He is the oldest of all the existing calendars. At the heart of the lunar calendar is a periodic changing phases of the moon, so-called synodic month, equal to 29.53 days. Thus, the total length of the lunar year is 354.37 days. The main disadvantage of this calendar is that it does not account for the fractional part, and for every 30 years, accumulating extra 11 days. This requires an extra ‘spots’ in the calendar for the elimination of the emerging differences. A typical example of the lunar calendar is the Muslim calendar. 2. Solar calendar associated with the annual solar cycle and has a duration of 365.24 days. To eliminate errors arising every four years, introduced a special leap year that contains the extra day. Key dates on which is oriented like a calendar, the days are the equinoxes and solstices sunlight. Most modern calendars are solar. 3. The lunar-solar calendar. This is an attempt to harmonize and find links between two cycles – the lunar and solar. Rather complicated in the calculations, and in the application. For example, to eliminate the discrepancies are used to add every two or three additional years of the thirteenth month. An example lunar-solar calendar is the Jewish calendar. Thus, the calendar was the indispensable man for many millennia and has not lost its importance and to this day. Stylish calendar – it is an integral part of the business image as well as an important attribute of modern life. You can do it yourself using a graphics editor Design Calendar by AMS Software. This handy tool to create professional calendars quality. Just select the style calendar, add a photo of the original 2011 calendar is ready! Colorful calendar with photos – this is a great gift for any holiday!